"Rocket science" may be proverbial as a complex subject impossible for the ordinary person to understand, but in fact its essential principles are entirely accessible to any Kenyon student. Our course explores the basic concepts of rocket propulsion and spaceflight, including Newton's laws of motion, ballistics, aerodynamics, the physics and chemistry of rocket motors, orbital mechanics, and beyond. Simple algebra, numerical calculations, and data analysis help us apply the principles to real situations. We also delve into the history of astronautics, from the visionary speculations of Tsiolkovsky and Goddard to the missiles and space vehicles of today. Finally, we take a look at some of the developments in technology and space exploration that may lie just around the corner. In addition to the regular class meeting, there will be several evening and weekend lab sessions, during which we will design, build, test, and fly model rockets powered by commercial solid-fuel engines. No prerequisite. A willingness to build upon high school science and mathematics is expected.

Accessible to all students, this course surveys current knowledge of the physical nature of stars and galaxies. Topics include the sun and other stars, the evolution of stars, interstellar matter, the end products of stellar evolution (including pulsars and black holes), the organization of stellar systems such as clusters and galaxies, and the large-scale structure of the universe itself. Evening laboratory sessions will include telescopic observation, laboratory investigations of light and spectra, and computer modeling and simulation exercises. No prerequisite.

This course focuses on a wide variety of physics topics relevant to students in the life sciences. Topics include electricity and magnetism, geometrical and physical optics, atomic physics, X-rays, radioactivity, and nuclear physics. When possible, examples will relate to life-science contexts. The course will be taught using a combination of lectures, in-class exercises, homework assignments, and examinations. Prerequisite: PHYS 130. Corequisite: PHYS 146. Offered every spring semester.

This lecture course is a continuation of the calculus-based introduction to physics, PHYS 140, and focuses on the physics of the twentieth century. Topics include geometrical and wave optics, special relativity, photons, photon-electron interactions, elementary quantum theory (including wave-particle duality, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the time-independent Schrodinger equation), atomic physics, solid-state physics, nuclear physics, and elementary particles. PHYS 145 is recommended for students who may major in physics, and is also appropriate for students majoring in other sciences or mathematics. The course will be taught using a combination of lectures, in-class exercises, homework assignments, and examinations. Prerequisite: PHYS 140 and MATH 111 or permission of instructor. Corequisite: PHYS 146 and MATH 112 taken concurrently or permission of department chair. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Offered every spring semester.

This laboratory course is a co-requisite for all students enrolled in PHYS 135 or 145. The course meets one afternoon each week and is organized around weekly experiments demonstrating the phenomena of waves, optics, x-rays, and atomic and nuclear physics. Lectures cover the theory and instrumentation required to understand each experiment. Experimental techniques include the use of lasers, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, optical spectroscopy, and nuclear counting and spectroscopy. Students are introduced to computer-assisted graphical and statistical analysis of data, as well as the analysis of experimental uncertainty. Prerequisite: PHYS 110 or 141. Corequisite: PHYS 135 or 145. Offered every spring semester.

This laboratory course is a co-requisite for all students enrolled in PHYS 135 or 145. The course meets one afternoon each week and is organized around weekly experiments demonstrating the phenomena of waves, optics, x-rays, and atomic and nuclear physics. Lectures cover the theory and instrumentation required to understand each experiment. Experimental techniques include the use of lasers, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, optical spectroscopy, and nuclear counting and spectroscopy. Students are introduced to computer-assisted graphical and statistical analysis of data, as well as the analysis of experimental uncertainty. Prerequisite: PHYS 110 or 141. Corequisite: PHYS 135 or 145. Offered every spring semester.

This laboratory course is a co-requisite for all students enrolled in PHYS 135 or 145. The course meets one afternoon each week and is organized around weekly experiments demonstrating the phenomena of waves, optics, x-rays, and atomic and nuclear physics. Lectures cover the theory and instrumentation required to understand each experiment. Experimental techniques include the use of lasers, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, optical spectroscopy, and nuclear counting and spectroscopy. Students are introduced to computer-assisted graphical and statistical analysis of data, as well as the analysis of experimental uncertainty. Prerequisite: PHYS 110 or 141. Corequisite: PHYS 135 or 145. Offered every spring semester.

This laboratory course is a co-requisite for all students enrolled in PHYS 135 or 145. The course meets one afternoon each week and is organized around weekly experiments demonstrating the phenomena of waves, optics, x-rays, and atomic and nuclear physics. Lectures cover the theory and instrumentation required to understand each experiment. Experimental techniques include the use of lasers, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, optical spectroscopy, and nuclear counting and spectroscopy. Students are introduced to computer-assisted graphical and statistical analysis of data, as well as the analysis of experimental uncertainty. Prerequisite: PHYS 110 or 141. Corequisite: PHYS 135 or 145. Offered every spring semester.

The topics of oscillations and waves serve to unify many subfields of physics. This course begins with a discussion of damped and undamped, free and driven, and mechanical and electrical oscillations. Oscillations of coupled bodies and normal modes of oscillations are studied along with the techniques of Fourier analysis and synthesis. We then consider waves and wave equations in continuous and discontinuous media, both bounded and unbounded. The course may also treat properties of the special mathematical functions that are the solutions to wave equations in non-Cartesian coordinate systems. Prerequisite: PHYS 240 or equivalent. Offered every spring semester.

As modern computers become more capable, a new mode of investigation is emerging in all science disciplines: the use of the computer to model the natural world and solving the model equations numerically rather than analytically. Thus, computational physics is assuming a co-equal status with theoretical and experimental physics as a way to explore physical systems. This course will introduce the student to the methods of computational physics, numerical integration, numerical solutions of differential equations, Monte Carlo techniques, and others. Students will learn to implement these techniques in the computer language C, a widely used high-level programming language in computational physics. In addition, the course will expand students' capabilities in using a symbolic algebra program (Mathematica) to aid in theoretical analysis and in scientific visualization. Prerequisite: PHYS 240 and MATH 112 or permission of instructor. Offered every spring semester.

This course covers applications of quantum mechanics to atomic, nuclear, and molecular systems. Topics to be covered include atomic and molecular spectra, the Zeeman effect, nuclear structure and reactions, cosmic rays, scattering, and perturbation theory. Prerequisite: PHYS 360. Offered every other year.

Modern field theories may find their inspiration in the quest for understanding the most fundamental forces of the universe, but they find crucial tests and fruitful applications when used to describe the properties of the materials that make up our everyday world. In fact, these theories have made great strides in allowing scientists to create new materials with properties that have revolutionized technology and our daily lives. This course will include: crystal structure as the fundamental building block of most solid materials; how crystal lattice periodicity creates electronic band structure; the electron-hole pair as the fundamental excitation of the "sea" of electrons; and Bose-Einstein condensation as a model for superfluidity and superconductivity. Additional topics will be selected from the renormalization group theory of continuous phase transitions, the interaction of light with matter, magnetic materials, and nano-structures. There will be a limited number of labs, at times to be arranged, on topics such as crystal growth, X-ray diffraction as a probe of crystal structure, specific heat of metals at low temperature, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Prerequisite: PHYS 245 and MATH 213. Offered every other year.

This course is an introduction to upper-level experimental physics that will prepare you for work in original research in physics and for work in industry applications of physics. You will acquire skills in experimental design, observation, material preparation and handling, and equipment calibration and operation. The experiments will be selected to introduce you to concepts, techniques, and equipment useful in understanding physical phenomena across a wide range of physics subdisciplines, with the two-fold goal of providing you with a broad overview of several branches of experimental physics and preparing you to undertake any of the experiments found in the successor courses, PHYS 386 and 387. Prerequisite: PHYS 241 and PHYS 245. This course is offered once a year and runs the first half of the semester only.

In this course you will probe the structure of solids using X-ray crystallography and atomic force microscopy, study the physical properties of semiconductors, and use the manipulation of magnetic fields to examine the resonant absorption of energy in atoms and nuclei. Prerequisite: PHYS 385 (may be taken in the same semester). This course is offered in alternate years and runs the second half of the semester only.